Apol saspa dating

The few objects not mentioned in the t /[ : perhaps the beginning of a proper name.

The tyiperpov was probably the charge for porterage between the Mareotic harbour and the store-house in Alexandria rather than that at the ports where the cargo was picked up. The figure e is, as usual, written above X (6ss), while fjterptfra/ is abbreviated into y&P .

Little is known about the circumstances of this remarkable find.

The sebakh- diggers who divided the spoil were naturally shy of speaking about it to any- one connected with the Antiquities Department, and I have tried in vain to ascertain the exact spot of the discovery.

The dates of the papyri are converted into dates on the Julian calendar in accordance with the system followed in my articles in the Annales and confirmed by the researches of Beloch (,) . But it is better not to run the risk of obscuring the picture by mixing together documents which may possibly refer to different times and circumstances. The texts published here range from year 26, when the correspondence begins, to the end of year 29, when Zenon was finally established at Philadelphia, and they therefore cover what is for us the most interesting period of his life. It would have been greatly to the advantage of the complete edition if these articles had been subjected to more detailed criticism (such as Schubart and Wilcken have devoted to nos. 59003); and it is for lack of better guidance that many of the notes and remarks in the Catalogue are merely abridged or taken without much alteration from those in the Annales. I have not attempted to comment, except occasionally and briefly, on the many points of interest, — philological, historical, legal and economical, — which the papyri contain, but it has been my aim to present them as a connected series against the background of Zenon’s career. I have reluctantly adopted the latter title as less likely to be misunderstood and suggest that P. The fragments, of which there must be several hundred in our collection, have given me more trouble than the complete texts. Rostovtzel F s book called A large estate in Egypt in the third century B. may be recommended as a most valuable introduction to the whole subject. The latter, even if one does not fully understand them, one can copy as faithfully as possible and leave the interpretation to others; the piecing together of fragments, which demands constant recourse to the original material, must be done chiefly by oneself.