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Nor was Jewish–gentile violence a one-sided affair.In the marketplace, Jews were not shy about insulting non-Jewish customers and competitors, nor of participating in the violence that followed.

(Courtesy Roberta Newman) Smuggling was a high-risk operation, and there were violent clashes between bands of smugglers and border patrols.There were several celebrated cases of murder of informers by Jewish communities.Jewish military deserters also represented a violent criminal element, capable of banditry and murder.In Western tradition, a number of factors combined to create the image of Jews as a group with a special propensity for criminal activity.Theological considerations were paramount in the premodern period when Jews were viewed as committers of deicide and as members of the “synagogue of Satan,” capable of any abomination.

Christian dating eastern europe