In the United States, most building codes) for the adobe block.Adobe construction should be designed so as to avoid lateral structural loads that would cause bending loads.Too much expansive clay results in uneven drying through the brick resulting in cracking, while too much kaolinite will make a weak brick.Typically the soils of the Southwest United States, where such construction is in use, are an adequate composition. they carry their own weight into the foundation rather than by another structure, hence the adobe must have sufficient compressive strength.To withstand such loads, the codes typically call for a tensile modulus of rupture strength of at least 50 lbf/in) for the finished block.In addition to being an inexpensive material with a small resource cost, adobe can serve as a significant heat reservoir due to the thermal properties inherent in the massive walls typical in adobe construction.Buildings made of sun-dried earth are common throughout the world (Middle East, Western Asia, North Africa, West Africa, South America, southwestern North America, Spain, and Eastern Europe.) Puebloan peoples built their adobe structures with handfuls or basketfuls of adobe, until the Spanish introduced them to making bricks.Adobe bricks were used in Spain from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages (eighth century BCE onwards).
In dry climates, adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world.
Adobe is among the earliest building materials, and is used throughout the world.
Adobe bricks are most often made into units weighing less than 100 pounds and small enough that they can quickly air dry individually without cracking and be subsequently assembled, with the application of adobe mud, to bond the individual bricks into a structure.
These are the oldest methods of building with adobe in the Americas until holes in the ground were used as forms and then later wooden forms used to make individual bricks were introduced by the Spanish.
Bricks made from adobe are usually made by pressing the mud mixture into an open timber frame.