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It may have also led to large-scale political unity and even to states and empires.

High agricultural productivity resulted in a nonfarming class of artisans who were responsible for an advanced stone architecture, featuring the construction of stepped pyramids, and for highly evolved styles of sculpture, pottery, and painting.

The Mesoamerican system of thought, recorded in folding-screen books of deerskin or bark paper, was perhaps of even greater importance in setting them off from other New World peoples.

In the southeastern part of Mesoamerica lie the partly volcanic Chiapas–Guatemala highlands. Particularly important was the littoral plain extending south along the Gulf of Mexico, expanding to include the Petén-Agriculture in Mesoamerica was advanced and complex.Also characteristic was a layered system of 13 heavens and nine underworlds, each with its presiding god.Much of the system was under the control of a priesthood that also maintained an advanced knowledge of empire, was the most important.Thus, in Mesoamerica there was, from early on, a profound interest in hieroglyphic writing and calendar making.Religious ideology, judged from , was more highly developed in Mesoamerica than in the Andean region.