, for Colonia Nemausus, meaning the "colony" or "settlement" of Nemausus, the local Celtic god of the Volcae Arecomici.
Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes.
Nîmes has a mediterranean climate that is one of the warmest in France.
Its slightly inland, southerly location results in hot air over the city during summer months, whereas winters are cool to mild but not cold.
The amphitheatre dates from the end of the 2nd century AD and was one of the largest amphitheatres in the Empire. It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar, the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul.
Also, the Maison Carrée is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire; it later inspired the design of the Virginia State Capitol at Richmond.In 736-737, Charles Martel and his brother led an expedition to Septimania and Provence, and largely destroyed the city (in the hands of Umayyads allied with the local Gallo-Roman and Gothic nobility), including the amphitheatre, thereafter heading back north.The Muslim government came to an end in 752, when Pepin the Short captured the city.The city was located on the Via Domitia, a Roman road constructed in 118 BC which connected Italy with Spain.Its name appears in inscriptions in Gaulish as dede matrebo Namausikabo = "he has given to the mothers of Nîmes" and "toutios Namausatis" = "citizen of Nîmes".